In this episode of Looking Back Looking Forward, Professor Douglas Arner discusses the transition from FinTech 3.0, the application of new technologies from FinTech and RegTech startups, to FinTech 4.0, the emergence of large digital finance platforms and their roles in the coming years. In collaboration with the United Nations, Professor Arner and his team focus on startups and limited competitors transforming into big firms, termed as ‘BigFintechs’. The formation of such new entrants leaves some questions: How can we maximise BigFintech’s benefits of digitisation for societies? How can we make the most out of its data? How can BigFintechs support wider sustainable development goals? ‘A Principles-based Approach to the Governance of BigFintechs’, a newly released paper as part of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF)’s study, highlights the principles relating to financial regulation, corporate governance, competition policy, sustainability and responsibility in which BigFintechs can target for sustainable development.